50 Dangerous Beliefs: COVID-19, U.S. Edition

Editorial Mission: We help people make better decisions and judgments about critical medical issues, based on the current scientific evidence—not opinion. This report summarizes commonly held “dangerous” beliefs about COVID-19 as of June 10th, 2022. It points to credible studies or sources that challenge these popular COVID beliefs.

REPORT 1: June 10, 2022   |   Next Update: July 14, 2022

Evidence, Footnotes, and Other References

The following footnotes and comments are organized by the associated dangerous belief and its current evidence. 

BELIEF #1

  1. ECDC, 2022. SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern as of 7 April 2022. [online] European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control: An agency of the European Union. Available at: https://www.ecdc.europa.eu/en/covid-19/variants-concern [Accessed 7 June 2022].

  2. Ritchie, H., Mathieu, E., Rod.s-Guirao, L., Appel, C., Giattino, C., Ortiz-Ospina, E., Hasell, J., Macdonald, B., Beltekian, D. and Roser, M., 2022. Coronavirus Pandemic (COVID-19). [online] Our World in Data. Available at: https://ourworldindata.org/covid-cases#cumulative-confirmed-cases-per-million-people [Accessed 9 June 2022].

BELIEF #2

  1. Ritchie, H., Mathieu, E., Rod.s-Guirao, L., Appel, C., Giattino, C., Ortiz-Ospina, E., Hasell, J., Macdonald, B., Beltekian, D. and Roser, M., 2022. Coronavirus Pandemic (COVID-19). [online] Our World in Data. Available at: https://ourworldindata.org/covid-hospitalizations [Accessed 9 June 2022].

  2. Ritchie, H., Mathieu, E., Rod.s-Guirao, L., Appel, C., Giattino, C., Ortiz-Ospina, E., Hasell, J., Macdonald, B., Beltekian, D. and Roser, M., 2022. Coronavirus Pandemic (COVID-19). [online] Our World in Data. Available at: https://ourworldindata.org/covid-deaths [Accessed 9 June 2022].

  3. The New York Times, 2022. Two new versions of Omicron are gaining ground in the U.S., according to C.D.C. estimates. [online] nytimes.com. Available at: https://www.nytimes.com/2022/06/08/science/omicron-ba4-ba5-variant.html [Accessed 9 June 2022].

BELIEF #3

  1. Dawson, J., ABC News. 13 Jan 2022. Debunking the idea viruses always evolve to become less virulent. [online] ABC News. Available at: https://abcnews.go.com/Health/debunking-idea-viruses-evolve-virulent/story?id=82052581 [Accessed 25 March 2022].

  2. Ourworldindata. Coronavirus (COVID-19) Deaths. [online] Available at: https://ourworldindata.org/covid-deaths [Accessed 23 May 2022].

  3. Covid19.who.int. 2022. WHO Coronavirus (COVID-19) Dashboard. [online] Available at: https://covid19.who.int/ [Accessed 23 May 2022].

  4. Taylor CA, Whitaker M, Anglin O, et al. COVID-19–Associated Hospitalizations Among Adults During SARS-CoV-2 Delta and Omicron Variant Predominance, by Race/Ethnicity and Vaccination Status — COVID-NET, 14 States, July 2021–January 2022. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2022;71:466–473. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm7112e2.

BELIEF #4

  1. Ulloa AC, Buchan SA, Daneman N, Brown KA. Estimates of SARS-CoV-2 Omicron Variant Severity in Ontario, Canada. JAMA. 2022;327(13):1286–1288. doi: 10.1001/jama.2022.2274.

  2. Joseph A. Lewnard, Vennis X. Hong, Manish M. Patel, Rebecca Kahn, Marc Lipsitch, Sara Y. Tartof. Clinical outcomes associated with Omicron (B.1.1.529) variant and BA.1/BA.1.1 or BA.2 subvariant infection in southern California. medRxiv 2022.01.11.22269045; doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2022.01.11.22269045

  3. Isobel L. Ward, Charlotte Bermingham, Daniel Ayoubkhani, Owen J. Gethings, Koen B. Pouwels, Tomas Yates, Kamlesh Khunti, Julia Hippisley-Cox, Amitava Banerjee, Ann Sarah Walker, Vah. Nafilyan. Risk of COVID-19 related deaths for SARS-CoV-2 Omicron (B.1.1.529) compared with Delta (B.1.617.2). medRxiv 2022.02.24.22271466; doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2022.02.24.22271466

  4. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Long COVID or Post-COVID Conditions. Available at: https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/long-term-effects/index.html [Acessed 26 May 2022].

  5. Callaway E, Ledford H. How Bad is Omicron? What scientists know so far. Nature 600, 197-199 (2021). doi: https://doi.org/10.1038/d41586-021-03614-z

  6. ABC News, 2022. Debunking the idea viruses always evolve to become less virulent [online] ABC News. Available at: https://abcnews.go.com/Health/debunking-idea-viruses-evolve-virulent/story?id=82052581 [Accessed 25 March 2022].

  7. Groff D, Sun A, Ssentongo AE, et al. Short-term and Long-term Rates of Post acute Sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 Infection: A Systematic Review. JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(10):e2128568. doi: https://doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.28568

BELIEF #5

  1. Reference: Ulloa AC, Buchan SA, Daneman N, Brown KA. Estimates of SARS-CoV-2 Omicron Variant Severity in Ontario, Canada. JAMA. 2022;327(13):1286–1288. https://doi:10.1001/jama.2022.2274.

  2. Han, JH, Womack, KN, Tenforde, MW, et al. Associations between persistent symptoms after mild COVID-19 and long-term health status, quality of life, and psychological distress. Influenza Other Respi Viruses. 2022; 1- 10. https://doi:10.1111/irv.12980.

  3. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Epidemiology and Prevention of Vaccine-Preventable Diseases. Available at: https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/pubs/pinkbook/polio.html [Accessed 23 May 2022].

  4. Han, JH, Womack, KN, Tenforde, MW, et al. Associations between persistent symptoms after mild COVID-19 and long-term health status, quality of life, and psychological distress. Influenza Other Respi Viruses. 2022; 1- 10. https://doi:10.1111/irv.12980.

  5. Anselm, B., 2022. When Omicron Isn’t So Mild. [online] Nytimes.com. Available at: https://www.nytimes.com/2022/01/29/health/omicron-chronic-illness.html. [Accessed 12 April 2022].

BELIEF #6

  1. Kelley, 2022. COVID-19 won’t be eradicated: WHO – The Hill. [online] Thehill.com. Available at: https://thehill.com/changing-america/well-being/longevity/571155-covid-19-wont-be-eradicated-who/ [Accessed 12 April 2022].
  2. Callaway E. Beyond Omicron: what’s next for COVID’s viral evolution? Nature 600, 204-207 (2021). doi: https://doi.org/10.1038/d41586-021-03619-8.

  3. Arrow KJ, Panosian C, Gelband H, editors. Institute of Medicine (US) Committee on the Economics of Antimalarial Drugs. Saving Lives, Buying Time: Economics of Malaria Drugs in an Age of Resistance. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 2004. 5, A Brief History of Malaria. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK215638/.

  4. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Smallpox. Available at: https://www.cdc.gov/smallpox/index.html [Accessed 26 May 2022].

  5. Barberis I, Bragazzi NL, Galluzzo L, Martini M. The history of tuberculosis: from the first historical records to the isolation of Koch’s bacillus. J Prev Med Hyg. 2017;58(1):E9-E12.

BELIEF #7

  1. Yong, E., 2022. The Millions of People Stuck in Pandemic Limbo. [online] The Atlantic. Available at: https://www.theatlantic.com/health/archive/2022/02/covid-pandemic-immunocompromised-risk-vaccines/622094/ [Accessed 25 March 2022].

  2. McDonald, G. 15 July 2020. 5 Advances That Followed Pandemics. history.com [online]. Available at: https://www.history.com/news/pandemics-advances.

  3. McKee, M., Stuckler, D. If the world fails to protect the economy, COVID-19 will damage health not just now but also in the future. Nat Med 26, 640–642 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41591-020-0863-y.

BELIEF #8

  1. Ducharme, J., 2022. An N95 Is the Best Mask for Omicron. Here’s Why. [online] Time. Available at: https://time.com/6139169/n95-best-mask-omicron-covid-19/ [Accessed 12 April 2022].

  2. Andrejko KL, Pry JM, Myers JF, et al. Effectiveness of Face Mask or Respirator Use in Indoor Public Settings for Prevention of SARS-CoV-2 Infection — California, February–December 2021. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2022;71:212–216. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm7106e1.

  3. Sickbert-Bennett EE, Samet JM, Clapp PW, et al. Filtration Efficiency of Hospital Face Mask Alternatives Available for Use During the COVID-19 Pandemic. JAMA Intern Med. 2020;180(12):1607-1612. doi: 10.1001/jamainternmed.2020.4221

BELIEF #9

  1. Global, regional, and national estimates of the population at increased risk of severe COVID-19 due to underlying health conditions in 2020: a modelling study. The Lancet Global Health, ISSN: 2214-109X, Vol: 8, Issue: 8, Page: e1003-e1017. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2214-109X(20)30264-3.

  2. Booth A, Reed AB, Ponzo S, Yassaee A, Aral M, Plans D, et al. (2021) Population risk factors for severe disease and mortality in COVID-19: A global systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS ONE 16(3): e0247461. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0247461.

  3. Dessie, Z.G., Zewotir, T. Mortality-related risk factors of COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis of 42 studies and 423,117 patients. BMC Infect Dis 21, 855 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12879-021-06536-3.

  4. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. COVID-19. Available at: https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/covid-data/investigations-discovery/hospitalization-death-by-age.html [Accessed 26 May 2022].

  5. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Long COVID or Post-COVID Conditions. Available at: https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/long-term-effects/index.html [Accessed 26 May 2022].

  6. Wu, K., 2022. The Pandemic After the Pandemic. [online] The Atlantic. Available at: https://www.theatlantic.com/health/archive/2022/03/long-covid-risk/627031/ [Accessed 26 May 2022].

  7. Frias, A., 2022. The Pandemic Isn’t Over for Immunocompromised San Diegans – NBC 7 San Diego. [online] Nbcsandiego.com. Available at: https://www.nbcsandiego.com/news/local/the-pandemic-isnt-over-for-immunocompromised-san-diegans/2881876/ [Accessed 25 March 2022].

  8. Whiting, K., 2022. An expert explains: how to help older people through the COVID-19 pandemic. [online] World Economic Forum. Available at: https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2020/03/coronavirus-covid-19-elderly-older-people-health-risk/ [Accessed 25 March 2022].

  9. Andrejko KL, Pry JM, Myers JF, et al. Effectiveness of Face Mask or Respirator Use in Indoor Public Settings for Prevention of SARS-CoV-2 Infection — California, February–December 2021. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2022;71:212–216. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm7106e1.

BELIEF #10

  1. Leo, C., Sabina, S., Tumolo, M., Bodini, A., Ponzini, G., Sabato, E. and Mincarone, P., 2021. Burnout Among Healthcare Workers in the COVID 19 Era: A Review of the Existing Literature. Frontiers in Public Health, [online] 9. Available at: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpubh.2021.750529/full [Accessed 12 April 2022].

  2. V Vizheh, M., Qorbani, M., Arzaghi, S., Muhidin, S., Javanmard, Z. and Esmaeili, M., 2020. The mental health of healthcare workers in the COVID-19 pandemic: A systematic review. Journal of Diabetes & Metabolic Disorders, [online] 19(2), pp.1967-1978. Available at: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33134211/ [Accessed 12 April 2022].

  3. Stevenson, A., 2022. Hong Kong’s overwhelmed hospitals are keeping the dead in wards with Covid patients. [online] Nytimes.com. Available at: https://www.nytimes.com/2022/03/11/world/asia/hong-kong-hospitals-covid.html [Accessed 25 March 2022].

  4. Chor WPD, Ng WM, Cheng L, et al. Burnout amongst emergency healthcare workers during the COVID-19 pandemic: A multi-center study. Am J Emerg Med. 2021;46:700-702. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajem.2020.10.040.

  5. Chinvararak C, Kerdcharoen N, Pruttithavorn W, Polruamngern N, Asawaroekwisoot T, Munsukpol W, et al. (2022) Mental health among healthcare workers during COVID-19 pandemic in Thailand. PLoS ONE 17(5): e0268704. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0268704.

BELIEF #11

  1. Wu, K., 2022. The Pandemic After the Pandemic. [online] The Atlantic. Available at: https://www.theatlantic.com/health/archive/2022/03/long-covid-risk/627031/ [Accessed 26 May 2022].

  2. Gross, R.E, and Boissoneault, L. Long covid could change the way researchers study chronic illness: Activists think the lessons of the past can help. Will anyone listen? Available at: https://www.washingtonpost.com/outlook/2022/02/25/long-covid-recover-chronic-illness-nih/ [Accessed 25 March 2022]

  3. Groff D, Sun A, Ssentongo AE, et al. Short-term and Long-term Rates of Post acute Sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 Infection: A Systematic Review. JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(10):e2128568. doi: https://doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.28568

  4. Sugiyama, A., Miwata, K., Kitahara, Y. et al. Long COVID occurrence in COVID-19 survivors. Sci Rep 12, 6039 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-022-10051-z

  5. Xie, Y., Bowe, B. & Al-Aly, Z. Burdens of post-acute sequelae of COVID-19 by severity of acute infection, demographics and health status. Nat Commun 12, 6571 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-26513-3

  6. Yoo, S.M., Liu, T.C., Motwani, Y. et al. Factors Associated with Post-Acute Sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 (PASC) After Diagnosis of Symptomatic COVID-19 in the Inpatient and Outpatient Setting in a Diverse Cohort. J GEN INTERN MED (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11606-022-07523-3

  7. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. COVID-19. Available at: https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/hcp/clinical-care/post-covid-background.html [Accessed 31 May 2022].

  8. Halpin S, O’Connor R, Sivan M. Long COVID and chronic COVID syndromes. J Med Virol. 2021;93(3):1242-1243. https://doi.org/10.1002%2Fjmv.26587.

  9. Zimmermann, Petra MD, PhD; Pittet, Laure F. MD-PhD; Curtis, Nigel FRCPCH, PhD, How Common is Long COVID in Children and Adolescents?, The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal: December 2021 – Volume 40 – Issue 12 – p e482-e487 https://journals.lww.com/pidj/fulltext/2021/12000/ how_common_is_long_covid_in_children_and.20.aspx.

BELIEF #12

  1. Matsuyama, K., 2022. Why are so many people in England getting reinfected with Covid? [online] the Guardian. Available at: https://www.theguardian.com/world/2022/mar/31/why-are-so-many-people-in-england-getting-reinfected-with-covid-omicron [Accessed 12 April 2022].

  2. Mahase E. Covid-19: Past infection may not protect against future variants, researcher warns BMJ 2022; 376 :o334 https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.o334.

BELIEF #13

  1. British Broadcasting Corporation, 2022. Covid: Deadly Omicron should not be called mild, warns WHO. [online] BBC News. Available at: https://www.bbc.com/news/world-59901547 [Accessed 25 March 2022].

  2. Anselm, B., 2022. Omicron is 40% More Deadly than Seasonal Flu, Study Finds. [online] Bloomberg.com. Available at: https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2022-03-03/omicron-is-40-deadlier-than-seasonal-flu-japanese-study-finds [Accessed 31 May 2022].

BELIEF #14

  1. Belluck, P., 2022. Can Omicron Cause Long Covid? [online] Nytimes.com. Available at: https://www.nytimes.com/2022/01/19/health/omicron-long-covid-symptoms.html [Accessed 12 April 2022].

  2. Groff D, Sun A, Sentongo AE, et al. Short-term and Long-term Rates of Post acute Sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 Infection: A Systematic Review. JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(10):e2128568. doi: https://doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.28568.

  3. Sugiyama, A., Miwata, K., Kitahara, Y. et al. Long COVID occurrence in COVID-19 survivors. Sci Rep 12, 6039 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-022-10051-z

  4. Xie, Y., Bowe, B. & Al-Aly, Z. Burdens of post-acute sequelae of COVID-19 by severity of acute infection, demographics and health status. Nat Commun 12, 6571 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-26513-3

  5. Yoo, S.M., Liu, T.C., Motwani, Y. et al. Factors Associated with Post-Acute Sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 (PASC) After Diagnosis of Symptomatic COVID-19 in the Inpatient and Outpatient Setting in a Diverse Cohort. J GEN INTERN MED (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11606-022-07523-3

  6. Reardon, S. Long COVID risk falls only slightly after vaccination, huge study shows. Nature News (25 May 2022). doi: https://doi.org/10.1038/d41586-022-01453-0

  7. Su, Y., Yuan, D., Chen, D. G., Ng, R. H., Wang, K., Choi, J., Li, S., Hong, S., Zhang, R., Xie, J., Kornilov, S. A., Scherler, K., Pavlovitch-Bedzyk, A. J., Dong, S., Lausted, C., Lee, I., Fallen, S., Dai, C. L., Baloni, P., … Heath, J. R. (2022). Multiple early factors anticipate post-acute COVID-19 sequelae. Cell, 185(5), 881–895.e20. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2022.01.014

BELIEF #15

  1. British Broadcasting Corporation, 2022. Covid: Deadly Omicron should not be called mild, warns WHO. [online] BBC News. Available at: https://www.bbc.com/news/world-59901547 [Accessed 25 March 2022].

  2. Katella, K. Omicron, Delta, Alpha, and More: What To Know About the Coronavirus Variants, 18 May 2022. Yale Medicine. Available at: https://www.yalemedicine.org/news/covid-19-variants-of-concern-omicron#:~:text=The%20agency%20is%20still%20monitoring,3%20variant [Accessed 31 May 2022].

  3. McPhillips, D. Growing Share of COVID-19 Deaths are Among Vaccinated People, but Booster Shots Substantially Lower the Risk. 11 May 2022. https://www.cnn.com/2022/05/11/health/unvaccinated-covid-deaths-growing/index.html [Accessed 31 May 2022].

BELIEF #16

  1. Nordstr.m, P., Ballin, M. and Nordstr.m, A., 2022. Risk of SARS-CoV-2 Reinfection and COVID-19 Hospitalisation in Individuals with Natural- and Hybrid Immunity: A Retrospective, Total Population Cohort Study in Sweden. SSRN Electronic Journal.

  2. Davis, N., 2022. Why are so many people in England getting reinfected with Covid? [online] the Guardian. Available at: https://www.theguardian.com/world/2022/mar/31/why-are-so-many-people-in-england-getting-reinfected-with-covid-omicron [Accessed 25 March 2022].

  3. 16.2 Mahase E. Covid-19: Past infection may not protect against future variants, researcher warns BMJ 2022; 376 :o334 https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.o334.

BELIEF #17

  1. Azeez, W., 2022. COVID jab less effective after 6 months, UK researchers say. [online] Euronews. Available at: https://www.euronews.com/next/2021/08/25/covid-vaccine-protection-fades-after-6-months-according-to-uk-researchers [Accessed 12 April 2022].

  2. Dolgin, E., 17 September 2021. COVID vaccine immunity is waning—how much does that matter? Nature News Explainer. Available at: https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-021-02532-4 [Accessed 1 June 2022].

  3. Hall, V., Foulkes, S., Insalata, F., Peter Kirwan, Saei, A., Atti, A., Wellington, E., Khawam, J., Munro, K., Cole, M., Tranquillini, C., Taylor-Kerr, A., et al. Protection against SARS-CoV-2 after Covid-19 Vaccination and Previous Infection. March 31, 2022. N Engl J Med 2022; 386:1207-1220. https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa2118691.

  4. N. Andrews, J. Stowe, F. Kirsebom, S. Toffa, T. Rickeard, E. Gallagher, et al. Covid-19 vaccine effectiveness against the omicron (B.1.1.529) variant. New England Journal of Medicine (2022), https://DOI:10.1056/NEJMoa2119451.

  5. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Vaccines and Preventable Diseases. [online] Available at: https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/vpd/mmr/public/index.html#how-well-mmr-works [Accessed 1 June 2022].

BELIEF #18

  1. Yong, E., 2022. How Did This Many Deaths Become Normal? [online] The Atlantic. Available at: https://www.theatlantic.com/health/archive/2022/03/covid-us-death-rate/626972/ [Accessed 12 April 2022].

  2. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, COVID-19. [online] Available at: https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/covid-data/investigations-discovery/hospitalization-death-by-age.html [Accessed 1 June 2022].

  3. Abbasi J. Younger Adults Caught in COVID-19 Crosshairs as Demographics Shift. JAMA. 2020;324(21):2141–2143. https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/2773055.

BELIEF #19

  1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR), 2022. [online] Data.cdc.gov. Available at: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/71/wr/mm7117e3.htm.

  2. Long COVID and kids: more research is urgently needed. Nature 602, 183 (2022). doi: https://doi.org/10.1038/d41586-022-00334-w

  3. Yong, E., 2022. How Did This Many Deaths Become Normal? [online] The Atlantic. Available at: https://www.theatlantic.com/health/archive/2022/03/covid-us-death-rate/626972/ [Accessed 12 April 2022].

  4. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, C., 2022. [online] Data.cdc.gov. Available at: https://data.cdc.gov/NCHS/Provisional-COVID-19-Deaths-Focus-on-Ages-0-18-Yea/nr4s-juj3 [Accessed 12 April 2022].

BELIEF #20

  1. Holly Yan and Travis Caldwell, C., 2022. A record-high number of kids are getting hospitalized with Covid-19 as overall Covid-19 hospitalizations soar past the Delta peak. [online] CNN. Available at: https://edition.cnn.com/2022/01/04/health/us-coronavirus-tuesday/index.html [Accessed 12 April 2022].

  2. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR), 2022. [online] Data.cdc.gov. Available at: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/71/wr/mm7117e3.htm.

  3. WHO Coronavirus (COVID-19) Dashboard. [online] covid19.who.int. Available at: https://covid19.who.int/ [Accessed 1 June 2022].

  4. Thomson H. Children with long covid. New Sci. 2021;249(3323):10-11. doi: 10.1016/S0262-4079(21)00303-1

  5. Lewis, D. Long COVID and kids: scientists race to find answers. Nature 595, 482-483 (2021). doi: https://doi.org/10.1038/d41586-021-01935-7.

  6. American Academy of Pediatrics, Children and COVID-19: State-Level Data Report. [online] aap.org. Available at: https://www.aap.org/en/pages/2019-novel-coronavirus-covid-19-infections/children-and-covid-19-state-level-data-report/ [Accessed 1 June 2022].

BELIEF #21

  1. The Lancet.com, 2022. Estimating excess mortality due to the COVID-19 pandemic: a systematic analysis of COVID-19-related mortality, 2020–21. [online] Thelancet.com. Available at: https://www.thelancet.com/action/showPdf?pii=S0140-6736%2821%2902796-3 [Accessed 12 April 2022].

  2. Adam, D. The pandemic’s true death toll: millions more than official count. Nature 601, 312-315 (2022) doi: https://doi.org/10.1038/d41586-022-00104-8.

  3. COVID-19 Cumulative Infection Collaborators. Estimating global, regional, and national daily and cumulative infections with SARS-CoV-2 through Nov 14, 2021: a statistical analysis. The Lancet; 08 April 2022. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(22)00484-6

BELIEF #22

  1. Grijalva, C., Rolfes, M., Zhu, Y., McLean, H., Hanson, K., Belongia, E., Halasa, N., Kim, A., Reed, C., Fry, A. and Talbot, H., 2022. Transmission of SARS-COV-2 Infections in Households — Tennessee and Wisconsin, April–September 2020. [online] CDC: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Available at: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6944e1.htm?msclkid=3769f65db41811ec96dd5432b6e49bbe [Accessed 12 April 2022].

  2. Cleveland Clinic, 2022. Should You Wear a Mask at Home? [online] Cleveland Clinic. Available at: https://health.clevelandclinic.org/should-you-wear-a-mask-at-home/ [Accessed 12 April 2022].

  3. Ducharme, J., 2022. An N95 Is the Best Mask for Omicron. Here’s Why. [online] Time. Available at: https://time.com/6139169/n95-best-mask-omicron-covid-19/ [Accessed 12 April 2022].

  4. Baker JM, Nakayama JY, O’Hegarty M, et al. SARS-CoV-2 B.1.1.529 (Omicron) Variant Transmission Within Households — Four U.S. Jurisdictions, November 2021–February 2022. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2022;71:341–346. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm7109e1.

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BELIEF #23

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BELIEF #24

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BELIEF #25

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BELIEF #26

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BELIEF #27

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BELIEF #28

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BELIEF #29

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BELIEF #30

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BELIEF #31

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BELIEF #32

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BELIEF #33

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BELIEF #34

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BELIEF #35

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BELIEF #37

BELIEF #38

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BELIEF #39

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BELIEF #40

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BELIEF #42

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BELIEF #43

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BELIEF #45

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BELIEF #47

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BELIEF #50

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Disclosure

The publisher of Plain Talk Reports is Jay Walker, the Curator of TEDMED, the health and medicine edition of the TED organization. Simultaniously, Mr. Walker is also Chairman and CEO of ApiJect Systems, Corp., a public-benefit medical technology company.

Editor-in-chief of Plain Talk Reports is Dr. Ed Kelley, PhD., the former Director of Integrated Health Services for the World Health Organization. Dr. Kelley, who continues to consult to WHO, is the Chief Global Health Officer at ApiJect, Head of the ApiJect Global Initiative (AGI), Head of Global Health Division at ApiLabs, and editor-in-chief of “Global,” the AGI newsletter.